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The time for Kiddush and Havdalah: Based on Pesachim 107a

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Pesachim 107a One who did not make Kiddush on Friday evening may make it anytime during the entire Shabbat day. One who did not recite Havdalah on Motzaei Shabbat may recite it until1 Sunday evening (or, another version taught, until1 Tuesday evening). (Gemara Pesachim 107a) Kiddush Rambam and Rav Sherira Gaon argue under what circumstances one can make Kiddush after Shabbat night. According to Rav Sherira Gaon2 one can only make Friday night’s Kiddush3 on Shabbat day if he either forgot or was unable to make it at night. In contrast, Rambam4 rules that even if one purposely did not make Kiddush on the night of Shabbat he can still make it during Shabbat day. Apparently5, Rav Sherira Gaon believes that Kiddush can really only be made at night; but can be made up (Tashlumin) during the day. Hence, one who purposely did not make Kiddush at night is not granted the opportunity to make it up later (just as one cannot make up a prayer that was omitted purposely). According to Rambam, on the other hand, the time for Kiddush lasts all Shabbat, though it should ideally (lechatchilah) be done at night. Havdalah Though the practical side of this issue is fairly straightforward, a basic conceptual problem remains under the surface of this Gemara: how can one conceive of making Havdalah after Motzaei Shabbat? Many Rishonim believe that the time for Havdalah is indeed limited to Motzaei Shabbat, but that one who fails to make it then must “repay” his obligation later (“Tashlumei Havdalah”). A similar concept appears regarding one who missed the morning service; he is obligated to make up for it by praying the afternoon service twice (“Tashlumei Tefilah”). The afternoon is not the time for praying Shacharit, but it is legitimate to compensate for the missed obligation after the proper time has passed. Alternatively, it is possible to suggest that Havdalah can be said until (Sunday evening or) Tuesday evening because the Mitzvah of Havdalah lasts for (one or) three days. Ideally (lechatchilah), Havdalah should be recited on the night that Shabbat finishes, but post facto (bedi’avad), one can fulfill the Mitzvah until (Sunday evening or) Tuesday evening. There is a practical ramification to this conceptual discussion. Obviously, one need not make up a Mitzvah that he was not obligated to keep in the first place. One who, for some reason, was exempt from Havdalah on Motzaei Shabbat would then not be obligated to make it up later. If the obligation lasts for several days, however, one must recite it as soon as he is able. The Rosh (Berachot 3:2) therefore says that one who was an “Onen” (a bereaved person who, until the burial, is exempt from all positive commandments) on Motzaei Shabbat and therefore not obligated in Havdalah does not resume his obligation after the burial the next morning even though all other Mitzvot once again apply to him. Because the requirement of making Havdalah after Motzaei Shabbat is only “Tashlumin” (compensation) for Motzaei Shabbat’s missed obligation, the Onen is not subject to it, for the initial Mitzvah of Havdalah had never devolved upon him. Maharam of Rotenburg disagrees with this view and believes that immediately after the burial the mourner should make Havdalah. Conceptually, Maharam and the Rosh’s argument about the Onen is really a difference of opinion regarding the time period of Havdalah: either it lasts three days or just during Motzaei Shabbat with an option for Tashlumin. 1. but excluding 2. quoted in Tur Orach Chaim 271 3. This is the main Kiddush, including the blessing proclaiming the holiness of the day and the blessing over wine. 4. Rambam, Hilchot Shabbat 29:4 5. Based on an article by Rav Elyakim Krumbein,

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